Ribogospod. nauka Ukr., 2023; 4(66): 17-34
DOI: https://doi.org/10.61976/fsu2023.04.017
UDC 639.2 (282.247.32)

Structural parameters and dynamics of commercial fish catches of Dnieper reservoirs

I. Buzevych, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Institute of Fisheries NAAS, Kyiv
M. Simon, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Institute of Fisheries NAAS, Kyiv

Purpose: to establish and analyze the dynamics of the species composition and amounts of commercial fish catches over the past 10 years in the context of assessing the overall efficiency of the fishery exploitation of Dnieper reservoirs.

Methodology. As primary materials, data from official commercial fishery statistics and the results of field monitoring studies carried out by the Institute of Fisheries of the National Academy of Sciences on Dnieper reservoirs in the period of 2012‒2022 were used. The intensity of commercial fish harvest was assessed by the annual fishing mortality rate, which was defined as the difference between the total and natural mortality. The total mortality rate was determined graphically by the natural logarithms of the number of age groups in catches; natural mortality — based on the parameters of the von Bertalanffy equation. Statistical data processing was carried out in MS Excel.

Findings. The dynamics of commercial catches in the cascade of Dnieper reservoirs in the last 10 years has been characterized by instability with a minimum of 8.9 thousand tons in 2013 and a maximum of 14.0 thousand tons in 2019. The majority of commercial catches was Prussian carp (28.2% of the total catch), common bream (21.1%), roach (20.5%) and silver bream (8.3%). The catch dynamics of all limited species had the same features — a growth in the period 2014‒2016, stabilization until 2019 and a further decrease, which was due to the determining influence of organizational factors.

The distribution of fishing pressure by the objects of fishing does not fully correspond to the quantitative parameters of their ichthyomass; the average (2019‒2021) coefficients of annual fishing mortality were: pikeperch — 32.0%, common bream — 22.8%, roach — 24.2%, silver bream — 22.7%, Prussian carp — 19.0%.

The maximum catches per unit effort of the gill net in the studied period were recorded for the Kamianske reservoir (348.9±73.4 kg), the lowest (152.0±44.5 kg) — for the Kaniv reservoir. The average fish catch per one gill net per cascade was 245.1±36.3 kg; a trend towards its growth during 2012‒2021 was observed.

Originality. Original data on the modern dynamics of the amount and structure of commercial fish catches as a component of scientific support for fisheries exploitation of the Dnieper reservoirs were obtained.

Practical value. It has been found that the fluctuations of fish catches in Dnieper reservoirs are largely determined by the influence of external (organizational) factors, which makes it possible to effectively manage the use of fish stocks. It is shown that for some species (in particular, pikeperch), the intensity of fishery exploitation exceeds the optimum, for others (Prussian carp, Black Sea sprat), on the contrary, an increase in the fishing pressure is possible.

Keywords: Dnieper reservoirs, ichthyofauna, commercial fishery, catch structure.


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