Ribogospod. nauka Ukr., 2022; 2(60): 84-98
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fsu2022.02.084
УДК: 597-12:578:[597.587.9](262.5+262.54)

Surveillance of viral diseases in free-living turbot (Scophthalmus maeoticus, Pallas, 1814) in the Northern Black Sea and Sea of Azov

Yu. Rud, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Institute of fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
O. Chashchin, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , S.E. Odesa Center of Southern Research Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanography, Odesa
I. Hrytsyniak, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Institute of fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
L. Buchatsky, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Institute of fisheries of the NAAS of Ukraine, Kyiv

Purpose. The development of marine aquaculture in the Black Sea is relevant and promising for many reasons, as stated in the decisions and documents of national organizations in the region and the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). Turbot is one of the most valuable fish marketed in seaside countries of the Black Sea as well as in the European Union. Various aspects of the biology of turbot have been investigated yet.Butunfortunately, surveillance procedures for listed diseasesandanalysis of the possibility its prevention and spread have not been provided. Therefore, in this study, in order to evaluate the data on viral diseases of turbot in Ukraine, in 2020 a field survey in free-living Black Sea turbot (Scophthalmus maeoticus) in the northern parts of Black Sea and Sea of Azov was carried out.

Methodology. Before sampling all fish were observed for the external lesions, measured from snout to tail length and of total length and weight. Sampling included pooled internal organs, gills and brain. Cell culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify viral diseases.

Findings. An external fish examination did not reveal any sign of disease. The internal organs, as well as the gills, were in good condition and had appropriate color, shape and without any pathological changes. All tested samples were free of IPNV, VHSV and VNN viruses as was determined by the methods of cell culture and PCR. The cytopathic effect (CPE) on cells was not observed after the first and the second blind passages. Using the RT-PCR method, we did not identify any of the viruses we were looking for.

Originality. This was the first attempt to screen turbot viral diseases in the Ukrainian waters of the Black and Azov Seas.

Practical value. In future the permanent surveillance of viral diseases in turbotin accordance with the EU strategy on animal health allows to prevent the outbreaks and develop new approaches for the diagnostic tests in purpose to study the ecology of pathogens in different areas.

Key words: turbot, the Black Sea, viral diseases, cell culture, PCR.


  1. Garlock, T., Asche, F., Anderson, J. L., Bjørndal, T., Kumar, G., Lorenzen, K., & Ropicki, et al. (2020). A global blue revolution: Aquaculture growth across regions, species, and countries. Reviews in Fisheries Science and Aquaculture, 28(1), 107-116. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/23308249.2019.1678111.
  2. EUMOFA. (2018). Case study. Turbot in the EU. EUMOFA. eumofa.eu. Retrieved from http://www.eumofa.eu/docu-ments/20178/114389/Turbot+in+the+EU.
  3. FEAP Production Report 2020 (18 December 2020). feap.info. Retrieved from https://feap.info/index.php/data.
  4. Khanaychenko, А. N., Giragosov, V. E., & Gaevskaya, A. V. (2012). Epizootological state of the wild black sea turbot (kalkan) grossly visible pathology: preliminary data. Marine Ecological Journal, 11 (4), 85-94. https://doi.org/10.21072/MEJ_2012_11_4_85 
  5. Ogut, H., Altuntas, C. & Parlak R. (2013). Viral Surveillance of Cultured Rainbow Trout in the Eastern Black Sea, Turkey. Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, 25(1), 27-35. doi: 10.1080/08997659.2012.732652.
  6. Ozturk, R. C., & Altınok, I. (2014). Bacterial and Viral Fish Diseases in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 14, 275-297. http://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v14_1_30.
  7. Kalayci, G., Incoglu, S., &  Özkan, B.  (2006). First isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) virus from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) cultured in the Trabzon coastal area of the Black Sea in Turkey. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 26(4), 157-162.
  8. Nishizawa, T., Savas, H., Isidan, H., Ustundag, C., Iwamoto, H., & Yoshimizu, M. (2006). Genotyping and Pathogenicity of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus from Free-Living Turbot (Psetta maxima) in a Turkish Coastal Area of the Black Sea. Applied and environmental microbiology, 72 (4), 2373-2378. doi:10.1128/AEM.72.4.2373–2378.2006.
  9. Isıdan, H., & Bolat, Y. (2011). A Survey of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia (VHS) in Turkey. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11, 507-513. doi: 10.4194/1303-2712-v11_4_01.
  10. Ogut, H., & Altuntas, C. (2012). Occurrence and prevalence of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cultured in cages in the Black Sea. Aquaculture Research, 43, 1550-1556. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2011.02959.x.
  11. Vendramin, N., Patarnello, P., Toffan, A., Panzarin, V., Cappellozza, E., Tedesco, P., & Terlizzi, A., et al. (2013). Viral Encephalopathy and Retinopathy in groupers (Epinephelus spp.) in southern Italy: a threat for wild endangered species? BMC Veterinary Research, 9, 20. doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-20.
  12. Doan, Q. K., Vandeputte, M., Chatain, B., Morin, T., & Allal, F. (2017). Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in aquaculture: a review. Journal of Fish Diseases, 40 (5), 717-742. ff10.1111/jfd.12541ff. ffhal-01533903f.
  13. Hulak, B., Leonchyk, Y., Maximov, V., Tiganov, G., Shlyakhov, V., & Pyatnitsky, M. (2021). The current state of the turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (Linnaeus, 1758), population in the northwestern part of the Black Sea. Fisheries & Aquatic Life, 29 (3), 164-175. https://doi.org/10.2478/aopf-2021-0018.
  14. Rud, Yu., Maistrenko, M., & Buchatsky, L. (2015). Characterization of an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from rainbow trout fry (Onhorhynchus mykiss) in West Ukraine. Virologica Sinica, 30 (3), 231-233. doi: 10.1007/s12250-014-3513-z.
  15. Snow, M., Bain, N., Black, J., Taupin, V., Cunningham, C. O., King J. A., Skall, H. F., et al. (2004). Genetic population structure of marine viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). Dis. Aquat. Org., 61, 11-21. doi: 10.3354/dao061011.
  16. Nishizawa, T., Mori, K., Nakai, T., Furusawa, I., & Muroga, K. (1994). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of RNA of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV). Dis. Aquat. Org., 18, 103-107. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao018103 
  17. Toffan, A., Buratin, A., Toson, M., Abbadi, M., Leardini, S., & Pascoli, F. (2021). Viral Encephalo-Retinopathy Interlaboratory Proficiency Test (VER-IPT): results from two years’ experience. Bull. Eur. Ass. Fish Pathol., 41(2), 59.
  18. European Commission (2016). Regulation (EU) 2016/429 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 9 March 2016 on transmissible animal diseases and amending and repealing certain acts in the area of animal health (Animal Health Law). eur-lex.europa.eu. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2016/429/oj.
  19. World Organisation for Animal Health (2019). OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code (the 22nd edition of the Aquatic Code 2019). oie.int. Paris, France. Retrieved from http://www.oie.int.
  20. European Commission (2007). A new Animal Health Strategy for the European Union (2007-2013) where “Prevention is better than cure”. Communication from the commission to the council, the european parliament, the european economic and social committee and the committee of the regions.
  21. Rud, Y., Bigarré, L., Pallandre, L., Briand, F.-X., & Buchatsky, L. (2020). First genetic characterization of sturgeon mimiviruses in Ukraine. J. Fish Dis., 43(11), 1391-1400. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13239.
  22. Rud, Yu., Maistrenko, M., Zaloilo, O., Liubchenko, G., Buchatskiy, L., & Hrytsyniak, I. (2020). Experimental infection of brown trout (Salmo trutta), zebrafish (Danio rerio), and swan mussel (Anodonta cygnea) with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Agricultural Science and Practice, 7 (3), 31-39. doi: https://doi.org/10.15407/agrisp7.03.031.
  23. Buchatskyi, L. P., Rud, Yu. P., & Matvienko, N. N. (2020). Viral diseases of sturgeon and salmon. Kyiv: DYA. [in Russian].
  24. Rud, Yu. P., Bushuiev, S. H., Khabarov, V., Hrytsyniak, I. I., & Buchatsky, L. P. (2021). Investigation of starry sturgeon Acipenser stellatus in the Black sea and Sea of Azov for AcIV-E infection. Marine ecological journal, 2, 65-70. doi: https://doi.org/10.47143/1684-1557/2021.2.06.
  25. Fernández-González, R., Pérez-Pérez, M., & Garza-Gil, M.D. (2021). An analysis of production factors for Galician-farmed turbot: From boom to stagnation. Aquaculture Economics & Management, 25(3), 320-338. doi: 10.1080/13657305.2020.1840659.
  26. Aydin, I., & Sahin, T. (2011). Reproductive performance of turbot (Psetta maxima) in the southeastern Black Sea. Turk J Zool, 35(1), 109-113. doi:10.3906/zoo-0905-26.