Ribogospod. nauka Ukr., 2021; 4(58): 40-55
Study and development of methods for obtaining intergeneric hybrids of salmonids (Salmonidae (Jarocki or Schinz, 1822)) for achieving the effect of heterosis and increasing their productivity
, Institute of Fisheries NAAS of Ukraine, Kyiv
Purpose. To study the possibility of obtaining highly productive intergeneric salmonid hybrids between rainbow trout and brook trout; brown trout and brook trout; rainbow trout and brown trout, as well as to develop methodological approaches and determine of optimal variants of hybrid crosses.
Findings. In order to obtain intergeneric hybrids, we used six variants of hybrid crosses with brood fish of three salmonids belonging to three families (Salmo, Oncorhynhus, Salvelinus). The study used age-4 female rainbow trout with average body weight of 3296.8 g, Fork length was 62.6 cm, and the average working fecundity was 7420 eggs. Age-3 rainbow trout males had an average body weight of 1613 g and an average body length of 49.8 cm; age-3 brown trout females had an average body weight of 453.8 g and average working fecundity of 1540 eggs, and males had an average weight of 458.7 g; age-3 brook trout females had an average weight of 809.7 g and a length of 38.9 cm with working fecundity of 1732 eggs, and age-4 males had an average weight of 1212.8 g and an average body length of 46.0 cm.
Twelve variants of fertilization were used: six variants at normal water temperature and six variants after a temperature shock.
Under natural conditions, the creation of intergeneric hybrids is almost impossible, except for variants between brown trout and brook trout, which is due to the similarity of their biology. However, the efficiency of this cross is low and economically impractical for fish farmers. When applying the temperature shock during fertilization, hybrids proved to be the most effective, where females were rainbow trout, and males were brook trout and brown trout. The average weight of young-of-the-year intergeneric hybrids was, depending on the species of fish, from 8 to 54 g. The highest results were obtained for the creation of hybrids where following broodstock was used:
♂brook trout Х ♀brown trout;
♂brown trout Х ♀rainbow trout.
In these variants of crossbreeding, the survival rate of young-of-the-year during the period of cultivation was 94.8 and 92.8%, respectively. In particular, the above hybrids did not suffer from infectious diseases during the growing period.
Originality. New data on the development of methods for obtaining viable offspring of newly created hybrids were obtained, and the optimal variants of crossing between females and males of these salmonids were determined.
Practical value. The results can be used for artificial breeding of salmonids in specialized farms that will allow obtaining high quality products and reducing their costs.
Key words:rainbow trout, brown trout, brook trout, incubation, free embryos, larvae, fry, young-of-the-year.
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