Ribogospod. nauka Ukr., 2020; 2(52): 53-64
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fsu2020.02.053
УДК 639.3.043.13:636.087.74

Outlook of using protein components of non-traditional origin in aquaculture feeds (review)

V. Bekh, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv
V. Martseniuk, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv
N. Tushnytska,  This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Institute of Fisheries NAAS, Kyiv

Purpose. To analyze scientific information sources on the experience and outlook of using protein components of non-traditional origin in compound feeds for aquaculture.

Findings. It has been proven that large-scale production of ASIs (Algae, Single cell proteins/oils and Insects — hereinafter ASI) has been achieved during recent years and their economic competitiveness has been demonstrated, while the quality of the end product is comparable to that of fishmeal in terms of essential amino acids and overall nutritional value. Like single-celled organisms, insects are also promising feed ingredients, as they contain not only valuable nutrients but also additional nutrients that are beneficial to animal health compared to conventional feed sources. Despite the fact that the production of insect protein is in its initial stage, pilot studies have shown significant positive results.

The production of ASI-products has a much smaller environmental impact in terms of both greenhouse gas emissions and water and energy consumption. Microbial protein production has a low anthropogenic load, while restrictions on plant protein production are increasing, including limited land, water and fertilizer supplies, and related environmental issues.

In Europe, the idea of developing industrial production of ASIs is gaining ground.

The new European Regulation EU (2015/2283) related to the use of insects and unicellular proteins in animal feed has significantly expanded the list of possible uses. Thus, it is obvious that insects and algae will soon be a global realistic potential alternative or supplement for aquaculture feeds.

Originality. The development of new alternative sustainable feed resources is one of the key long-term solutions to aquaculture food shortages. Currently, most of the alternative feed resources that are used are of terrestrial origin, including vegetable proteins and oils, the main ingredients for aquaculture. Aquaculture is now competing for the use of livestock, energy, and direct human consumption, raising concerns about the impact of the feed industry on global food security.

Practical value. Restrictions on the availability of high-cost animal ingredients and their high cost lead to the widespread use of terrestrial plant products as a major source of protein and energy, which is a definite alternative to marine ingredients. Ideally, providing the feed industry with feed resources of sufficient quantity and quality that will not directly compete with the human food chain. Thus, feed producers and end-users of fish products have been asked whether animal or vegetable by-products are safe when used as feed for aquaculture and whether they are truly capable of competing with fishmeal and fish oil of natural origin.

Keywords: feed ingredients, gut, feather and blood meal, insects, single cell organisms, protein.


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