Ribogospod. nauka Ukr., 2019; 2(48): 79-107
DOI: https://doi.org/10.15407/fsu2019.02.079 
УДК 016:[628.394.17:546]

Impact of heavy metals on freshwater ecosystems. Thematic English language bibliography

N. Kolesnyk, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Institute of Fisheries, NAAS, Kyiv
M. Simon, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. , Institute of Fisheries NAAS, Kyiv

Purpose. Creation of a reference bibliographic list of English-language open access publications from the Internet on the issues of the specific effects of heavy metals on freshwater ecosystems, their bioaccumulation and bioindication, as well as the functions of microelements in the hydrobionts organisms.

Methodology. In the process of preparing the thematic list, in the course of systemic search, holistic and selective methods were applied. The bibliographic core consists of literature sources from archives of scientific publications, in particular, such world-famous journals as Environmental Contamination Toxicology, Ecotoxicology, Aquatic Science, Aquatic Toxicology, Environmental Bioindicators, Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aguatic Sciences and many others.

Results. A thematic bibliographic list of major works has been formed: specialized scientific collections, materials of international scientific conferences, scientific papers, articles and extended dissertationa abstracts. It includes 227 sources, all of them are in English and are publicly available on the Internet. The presented publications cover a time interval from 1953 to 2018. However, most of them were published after 2000. In selected works, studies on the bioaccumulation and bioindication of heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems are highlighted, and data on the effect of trace elements on the organism of hydrobionts are given. Literature sources are arranged in alphabetical order according to the author or title, which corresponds to GOST 8302: 2015 “Information and documentation. Bibliography link. General provisions and rules for drafting, as amended (OCD code 01.140.40), as well as in accordance with the requirements for the design of the list of references according to the international standard APA style.

Practical value. The presented list will be useful for scientists, practitioners, students whose research concerns the analysis of the effects of heavy metals on freshwater ecosystems and patterns of bioindication and bioaccumulation of toxicants in hydrobionts, as well as the role of trace elements in their body.

Key words: heavy metals, bioaccumulation, bioindication, sedimentation, freshwater ecosystems, hydrobionts, fish, microelements, metalthioneins, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn.


  1. Adelman, I. R., & Smith, L. L. (1970). Effect of hydrogen sulfide on northern pike eggs and sac fry. Trans. American Fishery Society, 99(3), 501-509.
  2. Al-Attar, A. M. (2005). Changes in haematological parameters of the fish, Oreochromis niloticus treated with sublethal concentration of cadmium. Pakistan Journal Biology Science, 8(3), 421-424.
  3. Aliokhina, T. M., Bobko, A. O., & Malakhov, I. M. (2008). Content of the heavy metals in water and bottom sediments of the Ingulets River. Hydrobiological Journal, 44(5), 105-110.
  4. Alipour, H., Pourkhabbaz, A. & Hassanpour, M. (2013). Assessing of heavy metal concentrations in the tissue of Rutilus rutilus caspicus and Neogobius gorlap from Miankaleh international wetland. Environmental Contaminational Toxicology, 91, 5, 517-521.
  5. Sugiura, S. H., Dong, F. M., Rathbone, C. K., & Hardy, R. W. (1998). Apparent Protein digestibility and mineral availabilities in various feed ingredients for salmonid feeds. Aquaculture, 159(34), 177-202.
  6. Askary, Sary A., & Mohammadi, M. (2012). Lead bioaccumulation and toxicity in tissue of economically fish species from river and marine water. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 89, 1, 82-85.
  7. Nagpure, N. S., Srivastava, R., Kumar, R., Kushwaha, B., Srivastava, Satish K., Kumar, P., & Dabas A. (2015). Assessment of genotoxic and mutagenic potential of hexavalent chromium in the freshwater fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822). Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 38(1), 9-15.
  8. Amirbahman, A., Reid, A. L., Haines, T. A., Kahl J. S. & Arnold C. (2002). Association of methylmercury with dissolved humic acids. Environmental Science Technology, 36, 690-695.
  9. Atchison, G. J., Henry, M. G., & Sandheinrich, M. B. (1987). Effects of metals on fish behavior: a review. Environmental Biology Fishery, 18, 11-25.
  10. Atli, G., & Canli, M. (2011). Essential metal (Cu, Zn) exposures alter the activity of ATPases in gill, kidney and muscle of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicology, 20(8), 1861-1869.
  11. Schuster, P. F., Krabbenhof, D. P., Naftz, D. L., Cecil, L. D., Olson, M. L., Dewild, J. F., Susong, D. D., & Green, J. R. (2002). Atmospheric mercury deposition during the last 270 years: a glacial ice core record of natural and anthropogenic sources. Environmental Science Technology, 36(11), 2303-2310.
  12. Bagger, S., Breddam, K., & Byberg, B. R. (1991). Binding of mercury (II) to protein thiol groups: a study of proteinase K and carboxypeptidase Y. Journal Inorganic Biochemistry, 42, 97-103.
  13. Birge, W. J., Black, J. A., Westerman, A. G., & Hudson, J. E. (1980). Aquatic toxicity tests on inorganic elements occurring in oil shale. Oil shale symposium: sampling, analysis and quality assurance. Springfield, VA.: Nat. Techn. Inform. Serv., 519-534.
  14. Baker, R. J., Knittel, M. D., & Fryer, J. L. (1983). Susceptibility of Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), and Rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, to infection with Vibrio anguillarum following sublethal copper exposure. Journal of Fish Diseases, 6, 267-275.
  15. Baldwin, D. H., Tatara, C. P., & Scholz, N. L. (2011). Copper-induced olfactory toxicity in salmon and steelhead: extrapolation across species and rearing environments. Aquatic Toxicology, 101, 295-297.
  16. Bentley, R. E. (1975). Acute toxicity of ammonium molybdate and molybdic trioxide to Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): Bionomics biossay report submitted to Climax Molybdenium Company. Massachusetts, U. S.
  17. Bengtsson, B. E. (1974). Vertebral damage to minnows Phoxinus phoxinus rexposed to zinc. Oikos.
  18. Sappal, R., Burka, J., Dawson, S., & Kamunde C. (2009). Bioaccumulation and subcellular partitioning of zinc in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): cross-talk between waterborne and dietary uptake. Aquatic Toxicology, 9, 281-290.
  19. Triebleskorn, R., Adam, S., Casper, H., Honnen, W., Pawert, M., Schramm, M., Schwaiger, J., & Kohler, H. (2002). Biomarkers as a diagnostic tools for evaluating effects of unknown past water quality conditions on stream organisms. Ecotoxicology, 11, 451-465.
  20. Birge, W. J. (1978). Aquatic toxicology of trace elements of coal and fly ash. Augusta, GA, US.
  21. Birge, W. J., Black, J. A. & Westerman, A. G. (1979). Evaluation of aquatic pollutants using fish and amphibian eggs as bioassay organisms. Symp. Animals Monitors Environ., 12, 108-118.
  22. Black, J. A., Barnum, J. B., & Birge, W. J. (1993). An integrated assessment of the effects of boron to the Rainbow trout. Chemosphere, 26, 1383-1413.
  23. Bols, N. C., Brubacher, J. L., & Ganassin, R.C. (2001). Ecotoxicology and innante immunity in fish. Develompental and Comparative Immunology, 25, 853-873.
  24. Bose, S., Ghosh, P. & Bhattacharya, S. (1993). Distribution kinetics of inorganic mercury in the subcellular fractions of fish liver. Science Total Environmental, 1, 533-538.
  25. Borbely, G., & Nagy, E. (2009). Removal of zinc and nickel ions by complexation-membrane filtration process from industrial wastewater. Desalination, 240(13), 218-226.
  26. Bornette, G., & Puijalon, S. (2011). Response of aquatic plants to abiotic factors: a review. Aquatic Science, 73, 1-14.
  27. Воwen, Н. J. М. (1966). Trace elements in biochemistry. N.Y.: Acad. Press.
  28. Brix, H., & Lyngby, J. E. (1985). The influence of size upon the concentration of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn in the common mussel (Mutilus edulis). Heavy metals in water organism: Simposia biologica Hungarica. Budapest, 23-28.
  29. Brown, V. M. (1968). The calculation of the acute toxicity of mixtures of poisons to Rainbow trout. Water Research, 2, 723-733.
  30. Bruins, M. R., Kapil, S., & Oehme, F. W. (2000). Microbial resistance to metals in the environment. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 45(3), 198-207.
  31. Burger, J. (2006). Bioindicators: a review of their use in the environmental literature 1970-2005. Environmental Bioindicators, 1, 2, 136-144.
  32. Bury, N. R., Walker, P. A., & Glover, C. N. (2003). Nutritive metal uptake in teleost fish. Journal Experimental Biology, 206(1), 11-23.
  33. Xie, W. Y., Huang, Q., Li, G., Rensing, C., & Zhu, Y. G. (2013). Cadmium accumulation in the rootless macrophyte Wolffia globosa and its potential for phytoremediation. International Journal Phytoremediation, 15(4), 385-397.
  34. Franklin, N. M., Glover, C. N., Nicol, J. A., & Wood, C. M. (2005). Calcium/cadmium interactions at uptake surfaces in Rainbow trout: waterborne versus dietary routes of exposure. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 24(11), 2954-2964.
  35. Carignan, R., & Tessier, A. (1985). Zinc deposition in acid lakes: the role of diffusion. Science, 228, 1524-1526.
  36. Ni, S. S., Mothersill, C., Sheehan, D., O’Brien, N. M., O’Halloran, J., Van Pelt, F. N., Kieldmade, M., & Davoren, M. (2006). Cellular responses in primary epidermal cultures from Rainbow trout exposed to zinc chloride. Ecotoxicology Environmental Safe, 65(3), 332-341.
  37. Chapman, G. A. (1978). Effects of continuous zinc exposure on Sockeye salmon during adult-to-smolt freshwater residency. Trans. American Fishery Society, 107(6), 828-836.
  38. Chapman, G. A., & Stevens, D. G. (1978). Acutely lethal levels of cadmium, copper, and zinc to adult male Coho salmon and Steelhead. Trans. American Fishery Society, 107(6), 837-840.
  39. Chesters, J. K. (1992). Trace element-gene interactions. Nutritional Review, 50, 217-223.
  40. Chowdhury, M. J., Baldisserotto, B., & Wood, C. M. (2005). Tissue-specific calcium and metallothionein levels in Rainbow trout chronically acclimated to waterborne of dietary cadmium. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 48(3), 381-390.
  41. Chu, K. W., & Chow, K. L. (2002). Synergistic toxicity of multiple heavy metals is revealed by a biological assay using a nematode and its transgenic derivative. Aquatic Toxicology, 61, 53-64.
  42. Cid, A., Herrero, C., Enrique, T., & Yulio, A. (1995). Copper toxicity on the marine microalga Phaeodacty­lum tricornutum: effects on photosynthesis and related parameters. Aquatic Toxicology, 31, 165-174.
  43. Cooley, H. M., Evans, R. E., & Klavercamp, J. F. (2002). Baseline measurements of indicators for sublethal effects of metals in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 43, 418-424.
  44. Dastoor, A. P., & Larocque, Y. (2004). Global circulation of atmospheric mercury: a modeling study. Atmosphere Environmental, 38, 147-161.
  45. Dave, G. (1984). Effects of waterborne iron on growth, reproduction, survival and hemoglobin in Daphnia magna. Copmparative Biochemistry Physiology, 78, 433-438.
  46. Davies, P. H., & Brinkman, S. F. (1998). Toxicity of manganese to early-life stage and fry of Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in water hardnesses of 30 and 150 mg/L: federal Aid in Fish and Wildlife Restoration Job Progress Report, Colorado Division of Wildlife, Fish Research Section. Fort Collins, CO, U.S.
  47. Davies, T. D., Pickard, J., & Hall, K. J. (2005). Acute molybdenum toxicity to Rainbow trout and other fish. Journal Environmental English Science, 4(4),
  48. Davis, J. C., & Manson, B. J. (1973). Toxicity of boron to pacific salmon, and boron uptake experiments with pacific salmon and oysters. Zinc and boron pollution in coastal waters of British Columbia by effluents from the pulp and paper industry. Vancouver, B. C.: Environment Canada, Pacific Region.
  49. Dauvalter, V. (1997). Heavy metal concentrations in lake sediments as an index of freshwater ecosystem pollution. Disturbance and recovery in Arctic lands; an ecological perspective. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 333-351.
  50. De Schamphelaere, K. A. C., Lofts, S., & Janssen, C. R. (2005). Bioavailability models for predicting acute and chronic toxicity of zinc to algae, daphniids, and fish in natural surface waters. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 24(5),
  51. De Vries, W., & Banker, D. J. (1996). Manual for calculating critical load of heavy metals for soils and surface water. DLO Winland Staring Centre, Wageningen (The Neterlands). Report 114.
  52. Delgado, M., Bigeriego, M., & Guardiola, E. (1993). Uptake of Zn, Cr and Cd by water hyacinths. Water Research, 27, 2, 269-272.
  53. Desjardins, L. M., Hicks, B. D., & Hilton, J. W. (1987). Iron catalyzed oxidation of trout diets and its effect on the growth and physiological response of Rainbow trout. Fish Biochemistry Physiology, 3, 173-182.
  54. Hayashi, M., Ueda, T., Uyeno, K., Wada, K., Kinae, N., Saotome, K., Tanaka, N., Takai, A., Sasaki, Y. F., Asano, N., Sofuni, T., & Ojima Y. (1998). Development of genotoxicity assay systems that use aquatic organisms. Mutation Research, 399, 125-133.
  55. Dhote, S. & Dixit, S. (2009). Water quality improvement through macrophytes - a review. Environmental Monitoring Assessment, 152. 149-153.
  56. Hrenchuk, L. E., Blanchfield, P. J., Paterson, M. J., & Hintelmann, H. H. (2012). Dietary and waterborne mercury accumulation by yellow perch: a field experiment. Environmental Science Technology, 46, 509-516.
  57. Dixon, D. G., & Sprague, J. B. (2006). Acclimation-induced changes in toxicity of arsenic and cyanide to Rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson. Journal Fish Biology, 8(5), 579-589.
  58. Doudoroff, P., & Katz, М. (1953). Critical review of literature on the toxicity of industrial wastes and their components to fish. II. The metals as salts. Sewage Industrial Wastes, 25(7), 802-839.
  59. Dyer, K. R. (1972). Sedimentation in estuaries. The Estuarine Environment, 10-32.
  60. Eaton, J. G. (1973). Chronic toxicity of a copper, cadmium and zinc mixture to the Fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas Rafinesque). Water Reserch, 7,
  61. Kanoun-Boule, M., Vicente, J. A. F., Nabais, C., Prasad, M. N. V., & Freitas, H. (2009). Ecophysiological tolerance of duckweeds exposed to copper. Aquatic Toxicology, 91, 1-9.
  62. Sfakianakis, D. G., Renieri, E., Kentouri, M., & Tsatsakis, A. M. (2015). Effect of heavy metals on fish larvae deformities: a review. Environmental Research, 137, 246-255.
  63. Barhoumi, L., Oukarroum, A., Taher, L. B., Smiri, L. S., Abdelmelek, H., & Dewez, D. (2015). Effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on photosynthesis and growth of the aquatic plant Lemna gibba. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 68, 3, 510-520.
  64. Ates, B., Orun, I., Talas, Z. S., Orun, I., Durmaz, G., & Yilmaz, I. (2008). Effects of sodium selenite on some biochemical and hema­tological parameters of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) exposed to Pb2+ and Cu2+. Fish Physiology Biochemistry, 34(1), 53-59.
  65. Dussault, E. B., Playle, R. C., Dixon, D. G., & McKinley R. S. (2001). Effects of sublethal, acidic aluminum exposure on blood ions and metabolites, cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume of Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish Physiology Biochemistry, 25, 347-357.
  66. Hollis, L., McGeer, J. C., McDonald, D. G., & Wood, C. M. (2000). Effects of long term sublethal Cd exposure in rainbow trout during soft water exposure: implications for biotic ligand modeling. Aquatic Toxicology, 51 (1), 93-105.
  67. Standal, H., Rorvik, K. A., Lien, H., & Andersen, O. (1997). Effects of acute iron overload on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Biology Trace Element Reserch, 59(13), 13-22.
  68. Nemscok, J., Orbah, L., & Vig, E. (1985). Effect of Cu on some biochemical parameters of fishes. Heavy Metals Water Organism, 413-425.
  69. Satoh, S., Yamamoto, H., Takeuchi, T., & Watanabe T. (1983). Effects on growth and mineral composition of carp on deletion of trace elements or magnesium from fish meal diet. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 49, 431-435.
  70. Spehar, R. L., Lemke, A. E., Pickering, Q. H., Carlson, R. W., & Mount, D. I. (1981). Effects of pollution on freshwater fish. Journal Water Pollution, 53(6), 1028-1076.
  71. Eichenberger, E. (1982). The interrelation between essentiality and toxicity of metals in the aquatic ecosystem. Metal ions in biological systems, 20, 67-100.
  72. Schneiders, I. A. H., Ribios, J., Misrat, M., & Smitht, R. W. (1995). Eichhornia crassipes as biosorbent for heavy metal ions. Minerals Engineering, 8(9), 979-988.
  73. Eisler, R. (1993). Zinc hazards to fish, wildlife, and invertebrates: a synoptic review. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol.
  74. Birge, W. J., Hudson, J. E., Black, J. A., & Westerman, A. G. (1979). Embryo-larval bioassays on inorganic coal elements and in situ biomonitoring of coal-waste effluents. Surface mining and fish/wildlife needs in the eastern United States. Wash., D.C.: Fish and Wildlife Service, 97-104.
  75. Jiraungkoorskul, W., Kosai, P., Sahaphong, S., Kirtputra, P., Chawlab, J., & Charucharoen, S. (2007). Evaluation of micronucleus test’s sensitivity in freshwater fish species. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, 1(2), 56-63.
  76. Eyckmans, M., Celis, N., Horemans, N., Blust, R., & De Boeck, G. (2011). Exposure to waterborne copper reveals differ­ences in oxidative stress response in three freshwater fish species. Aquatic Toxicology, 103, 112-120.
  77. Birge, W. J., Black, J. A., Westerman, A. G., & Ramey, B. A. (1983). Fish and amphibian embryos ‒ a model system for evaluating teratogenicity. Fundamental Applied Toxicology, 3, 237-242.
  78. Fausch, K. D., Lyons, J., Karr, J. R., & Angermeier, P. L. (1990). Fish as indicators of environmental degradation. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 8, 123-144.
  79. Fitzgerald, W. P., & Mason, R. P. (1996). The Global Mercury Cycles: Oceanic and Anthropogenic Aspects. Global and Regional Mercury Cycles: Sources, Fluxes and Mass Balance. (Vol. 1), 85-108.
  80. Finlayson, B. J., & Verrue, K. M. (1980). Estimated safe zinc and copper levels for Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in the upper Sacramento River, California. Californian Fish Game, 66(2), 68-82.
  81. Finlayson, B. J., & Verrue, K. M. (1982). Toxicities of copper, zinc, and cadmium mixtures to juvenile Chinook salmon. Trans. American Fishery Society, 111(5), 645-650.
  82. Hall, B. D., Bodaly, R. A., Furge, R. J. P., Rudd, J. W. M., & Rosenberg, D. M. (1997). Food as the dominant pathway of methylmercury uptake by fish. Water Air Soil Pollut, 100, 3-24.
  83. Forstner, U., & Wittmann, G. T. W. (1979). Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
  84. Frieden, E. (1971). Caeruloplasmin, a link between copper and iron metabolism. Advanced Chemistry, 100, 292-321.
  85. Freeman, R. A., & Everhart, W. H. (1971). Toxicity of aluminum hydroxide complexes in neutral and basic media to Rainbow trout. Trans. American Fishery Society, 100(4), 644-658.
  86. Fu, Fenglian, & Qi, Wang (2011). Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: A review. Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 407-418.
  87. Gagne, F., Marion, M., & Denizeau, F. (1990). Metal homeostasis and metallothionein induction in rainbow trout hepatocytes exposed to cadmium. Fundamental Applied Toxicology, 14, 429-437.
  88. Gatlin, D. M., & Wilson, R. P. (1986). Characterization of iron deficiency and the dietary iron requirements of fingerling channel catfish. Aquaculture, 52, 191-198.
  89. Gatlin, D. M., & Wilson, R. P. (1983). Dietary zinc requirements of fingerling channel catfish. Journal Nutrition, 113, 3, 630-635.
  90. Gautam, R. K., & Ritesh, P. (1996). Lead and mercury alters lipid contents in liver and kidney of Heteropneustes fossilis. Uttar Pradesh Journal Zoology, 16, 1, 28-30.
  91. Bakar, A., Ashriya, A., Shuib, A. S. & Razak, S.A. (2014). Genotoxic effect of zinc and cadmium following single and binary mixture exposures in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using micronucleus test. Sains Malaysiana, 43(7), 1053-1059.
  92. Kumar, P., Kumar, R., Naresh, S., Nagpure, S., Nautiyal, P., Kushwaha, B., & Anurag, D. (2013). Genotoxicity and antioxidant enzyme activity induced by hexavalent chromium in Cyprinus carpio after in vivo exposure. Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 36(4), 451-460.
  93. Kumar, P., Kumar, R., Nagpure, N. S., Nautiyal, P., Dabas, A., Kushwaha, B., & Lakra W. S. (2012). Genotoxic and mutagenic assessment of hexavalent chromium in fish following in vivo chronic exposure. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 18, 9-15.
  94. Winkels, H. J., Kroonenberg, S. B., Lychagin, M. Y., Marin, G., Rusakov, G. V., & Kasimov, N. S. (1998). Geochronology of priority pollutants in sedimentation zones of the Volga and Danube delta in comparison with the Rhone delta. Applied Geochemichtry, 13, 581-591.
  95. Gerhardt, F. (1992). Effects of subacute doses of iron (Fe) on Leptophlebia marginata (Insecta: Ephem­eroptera). Freshwater Biology, 27, 79-84.
  96. Gilderhus, P. A. (1966). Some effects of sublethal concentrations of sodium arsenite on bluegills and the aquatic environment. Trans. American Fishery Society, 95, 289-296.
  97. Global mercury assessment. (2002). Issued by UNEP Chemicals. Switzerland: Geneva.
  98. Hertz, Y., Madar, Z., Hepper, B., & Gertler, A. (1989). Glucose metabolism in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): the effects of cobalt and chromium. Aquaculture, 76, 255-267.
  99. Golovanova, I. L. (2008). Effect of heavy metals on physiological and biochemical status of fishes and aquatic invertebrates. Biology of Inland Water, 1, 99-108.
  100. Golovanova, I. L., Chuiko, G. M., & Pavlov, D. F. (1994). Effects of cadmium, Naphthalene and DDVP on Gut Carbohydrases Activity in Bream (Abramis brama L.) and Mozambigue Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus Peters). Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 52, 3, 338-345.
  101. Grande, M., & Andersen, S. (1983). Lethal effects of hexavalent chromium, lead and nickel on young stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in soft water. Vatten Water, 39(4), 405-416.
  102. Grosell, M., & Wood, C. M. (2002). Cooper uptake across Rainbow trout gills: mechanisms of apical entry. Journal Experimental Biology, 205(8), 1179-1188.
  103. Perales-Vela, H. V., Gonsalez-Moreno, S., Montes-Horeasitas, C., & Canizares-Villanueva, R. O. (2007). Growth, photosynthetic and respiratory responses to sub-lethal copper concentrations in Scenedesmus incrassatulus (Chlorophyceae). Chemosphere, 67, 2274-2281.
  104. Hakanson, L. (1980). An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control - a sedimentological approach. Water Reserch, 14, 975-1001.
  105. Hakanson, L. (1984). Sediment sampling in different aquatic environments: Statistical aspects. Water Reserch, 20, 41-46.
  106. Hamilton, S. J., & Buhl, K. J. (1990). Acute toxicity of boron, molybdenum, and selenium to fry of Chinook salmon and Coho salmon. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 19(3), 366-373.
  107. Hamilton, S. J. (2004). Review of selenium toxicity in the aquatic food chain. Science Total Enviroment, 326, 1-31.
  108. Handy, R. D. (1993). The effect of acute exposure to dietary Cd and Cu on organ toxicant concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquatic Toxicology, 27, (12), 1-14.
  109. Harabawy, A. S., & Mosleh, Y. Y. (2014). The role of vitamins A, C, E and selenium as antioxidants against genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on erythrocytes of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicology Environmental Safe, 104, 28-35.
  110. Harris, H. H., Pickering, I. J., & George, G. N. (2003). The chemical form of mercury in fish. Science, 301, 12-13.
  111. Hayes, F. R. & Mac Aulay N. A. (1959). Lake water and sediment. Oxygen consumed in water over sediment cores. Limnology and Oceanography, 4, 3,
  112. Islam, M., Ahmed, M., Raknuzzaman, M., Habibullah-Al-Mamun, M., & Islam, M. K. (2015). Heavy metal pollution in surface water and sediment: A preliminary assessment of an urban river in a developing country. Ecological Indicators, 48, 282-291.
  113. Hill, C. H., Stratcher, B., & Kim, C. (1967). Role of copper in the formation of elastin. Federal Proceeding, 26, 129-133.
  114. Al-Bairuty, G., Shaw, B. J., Handy, R.D. & Henry, T. B. (2013). Histopathological effects of waterborne copper nanoparticles and copper sulphate on the organs of Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquatic Toxicology, 126, 104-115.
  115. Hodson, P. V., & Hilton, J. W. (1983). The nutritional requirements and toxicity to fish of dietary and water­borne selenium. Environmental Biogeochemistry Proceeding. 5th Int. Symp. ISEB. Stockholm, 355-340.
  116. Hogendoorn-Roozemond, A. S., Tenholder, J. J., & Stirk, J. J. (1977). The influence of pH on the toxicity of hexavalent chromium to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Aquatic pollutants ‒ transformation and biological effects : Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Aquatic Pollutants. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 477-478.
  117. Horowitz, A. J. (1991). A primer on trace metal-sediment chemistry. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers.
  118. Golovanova, I. L., Kuz'mina, V. V., Gobzhelian, T. E., Pavlov, D. F., & Chuiko, G. M. (1999). In vitro effects of cadmium and DDVP (Dichlorvos) on intestinal carbohydrase and protease activities in freshwater teleost. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology, 122, 1, 21-25.
  119. Giguere, A., Campbell, P. G. C., Hare, L., McDonald, D. G., & Rasmussen, J. B. (2003). Influence of lake chemistry and fish age of cadmium, cooper and zinc concentrations in various organs of indigenous Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Canadian Journal Fishery Science, 61(9), 1702-1716.
  120. Yang, X. E., Baligar, V. C., Martens, D. C., & Clark, R. B. (1995). Influx, transport and accumulation of cadmium in plant species grown at different Cd2+ activities. Environmental Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 30, 569-583.
  121. Brix, K. V., Esbaugh, A. J., Munley, K. M., & Grosell, M. (2012). Investigations into the mechanism of lead toxicity to the freshwater pulmonate snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Aquatic Toxicology, 106-107, 147-156.
  122. Janz, D. M. (2012). Selenium in Homeostasis and Toxicology of Essential Metals. Fish Physiology, 314, 327-374.
  123. Jezierska, B., & Witeska, M. (2006). The metal uptake and accumulation in fish living in polluted waters. Soil Water Pollution, 3(23), 107-114.
  124. Kjoss, V. A., Grosell, M., & Wood, C. M. (2005). The influence of dietary Na on Cu accumulation in juve­nile Rainbow trout exposed to combined dietary and waterborne Cu in soft water. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 49(4), 520-527.
  125. Knox, D., Cowey, C. B., & Adron, J. W. (1981). The effect of low dietary manganeseintake on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). British Journal Nutritional, 46(3), 495-501.
  126. Kodama, M., Ogata, T., & Yamamori, K. (1982). Acute toxicity of zinc to Rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri. Japanese Society Science Fishery, 48(8), 1055-1058.
  127. Krishnaja, A. P., & Rege, M. S. (1982). Induction of chromosomal aberrations in fish Boleophthalmus dussumieri after exposure in vivo to mitomycin C and heavy metals mercury, selenium and chromium. Mutational Reserch, 102(1), 71-82.
  128. Lagerwerff, J. V. (1972). Lead, cadmium and mercury as environmental contaminants. Micronutrients in Agriculture, 593-636.
  129. Leach, R. M. (1988). The role of trace elements in the development of cartilage matrix. Trace Element in Man and Animals. Plenum, New York, 267-271.
  130. Leach, R. M. (1971). Role of manganese in mucopolysaccharide metabolism. Federal Proceeding, 30, 991-994.
  131. Ruparelia, S. G., Verma, Y. V., Menhta, N. S., & Salyed, S. R. (1989). Lead-indused biochemical changes in freshwater fish Oreochromis mossabicus. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 43, 310-314.
  132. Leaner, J. J., & Mason, R. P. (2002). Methyl mercury accumulation and fluxes across the intestine of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus. Comparative Biochemistry Physiology, 132(2), 247-259.
  133. Le Blanc, G. A., & Bain, L. J. (1997). Chronic toxicity of environmental contaminants: sentinels and biomarkers. Environmental Health Perspectives, 105, 65-80.
  134. Lemly, A. D. (1985). Toxicology of selenium in a freshwater reservoir: implications for environmental hazard evaluation and safety. Ecotoxicology Environmental Safe, 10(2), 314-338.
  135. Lim, C., Sealey, W. M., & Klesius, P. H. (1996). Iron methionine and iron sulfate as sources of dietary iron for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Journal World Aquaculture Society, 27(3), 290-296.
  136. Linnik, P. N., Zhezherya, V. A., & Zubenko, I. B. (2012). Content of metals and forms of their migration in the water of the rivers of the Pripyat River Basin. Hydrobiological Journal, 48(2), 85-101.
  137. Linnik, P., & Zhezherya, V. (2011). Peculiarities of metals migration in the "bottom sediments − water" system with decreasing pH and increasing the concentration of fulvic acids. Hydrobiological Journal, 47(5), 86-101.
  138. Linnik, P. N. (2000). Heavy metals in surface waters of Ukraine: Their content and forms of migration. Hydrobiological Journal, 36(3), 31-54.
  139. Lovell, R. T. (1996). Selenium in fish feeds: nutritional, environmental and legal aspects. Aquacultyre Magazine, 22(1), 76-81.
  140. Maage, A., Sveier, H., & Julshamn, K. (1989). A comparison of growth rate and trace element accumulation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fry fed four different commercial diets. Aquaculture, 79(14), 267-273.
  141. Madoni, P. (2000). The acute toxicity of nickel to freshwater ciliates. Environmental Pollution, 109, 53-59.
  142. Madoni, P., & Romeo, M. G. (2006). Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists. Environmental Pollution, 141, 1-7.
  143. Magarios, B., Romalde, J. L., & Lemos, M. L. (1994). Iron uptake by Pasteurella piscicida and its role in pathogenecity for fish. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 60, 2990-2998.
  144. Maier, K. J., & Knight, A. W. (1991). The toxicity of waterborne boron to Daphnia magna and Chirono­mus decorus and the effects of water hardness and sufate on boron toxicity. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 20(2), 282-287.
  145. May, T. W., & McKinney, G. L. (1981). Cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, and selenium concentrations in freshwater fish 1976-1977. Pesticide Monitoring Journal, 15, 14-38.
  146. Mazen, A. M. A., & El-Maghraby, O. M. O. (1998). Accumulation of cadmium, lead and strontium, and a role of calcium oxalate in water hyacinth tolerance. Biology Plantarum, 40, 3, 411-417.
  147. Mebane, C. A., Hennessy, D. P., & Dillon, F. S. (2008). Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using Rainbow Trout, a mayfly, and a midge. Water, Air, & Soil Pollut, 188(14), 41-66.
  148. Miller, P. A., Munkittrick, K. R., & Dixon, D. G. (1992). Relationship between concentrations of copper and zinc in water, sediment, benthic invertebrates, and tissues of white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) at metal-contaminated sites. Canadian Journal Fishery Science, 49, 978-984.
  149. Cernik, M., Federer, P., Borkovec, M., & Sticher, H. (1994). Modeling of heavy metal transport in a contaminated soil. Journal Environmental Quality, 23, 1239-1248.
  150. Moss, B. (2008). Water pollution by agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Biological Sciences, 363, 659-666.
  151. Nam, S. H., Yang, C. Y., & An, Y. J. (2009). Effects of antimony on aquatic organisms (larva and embryo of Oryzias latipes, Moina macrocopa, Simocephalus mixtus, and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Chemosphere, 75(7), 889-893.
  152. Nduka, J. K. C., Constance, E., & Obiakor, E. (2006). Selective bioaccumulation of metals by different parts of some fish species from crude oil polluted water. Environmental Contaminatio Toxicology, 77(5), 846-853.
  153. Neville, C. M. (1985). Physiological response of juvenile Rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, to acid and aluminium ‒ prediction of field responses from laboratory data. Canadian Journal Fishery Science, 42, 2004-2019.
  154. Newcombe, C. P., & MacDonald, D. D. (1991). Effects of suspended sediments on aquatic ecosystems. North American Journal Fishery Management, 11, 72-82.
  155. Nriagu, J. O. (1990). Global metal pollution. Environment, 32, 6-21.
  156. Pacyna, E. G., & Pacyna, J. M. (2002). Global emission of mercury from anthropogenic sources in 1995. Water Air Soil Pollution, 137(14), 149-165.
  157. Wang, T. C., Weissman, J. C., Ramesh G., Varadarajan, R., & Benemann, J. R. (1996). Parameters for Removal of Toxic Heavy Metals by Water Milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum). Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 57, 779-786.
  158. Penrose, W. R. (1972). Arsenic in the marine and aquatic environment: analysis, occurrence and signif­icance. Environmental Control, 4(14), 465-482.
  159. Pickering, Q. H., & Henderson, C. (1966). The acute toxicity of some heavy metals to different species of warm water fishes. Air Water Pollution International Journal, 10, 453-463.
  160. Poleo, A. B. S., & Hytterod, S. (2003). The effect of aluminium in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with special emphasis on alkaline water. Journal Inorganic Biochemistry, 97, 89-96.
  161. Ptashynski, M. D., & Klaverkamp, J. F. (2002). Accumulation and distribution of dietary nickel in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis). Aquatic Toxicology, 58, 249-264.
  162. Prasad, M. N. V., Malec, P., Waloszek, A., Bojko, M., & Strzaeka, K. (2001). Physiological Responses of Lemna trisulka L. (Duckweeds) to Cadmium and Copper Bioaccumulation. Plant Science, 161, 881-889.
  163. Sood, A., Uniyal, P. L., Prasanna, R., & Ahluwalia, A. S. (2012). Phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophyte Azolla. Ambio, 41(2), 122-137.
  164. Gundersen, D. T., Bustaman, S., Seim, W. K., & Curtis, L. R. (1994). pH, hardness, and humic acid influence aluminum toxicity to Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in weakly alkaline waters. Canadian Journal Fishery Science, 51, 1345-1355.
  165. Rabajczyk, A. (2012). The relationship between metal forms found in river bottom sediments and land development (review). Water pollution. Rijeka: InTech, 189-202.
  166. Rai, P. K. (2010). Heavy metal pollution in lentic ecosystem of sub-tropical industrial region and its phytoremediation. International Journal Phytoremediation, 12(3), 226-242.
  167. Rama, D. S., & Prasad, M. N. V. (1999). Heavy metal stress in plants. From molecules to ecosystems, 99-117.
  168. Rana, S. V. S., Singh, R., & Verma, S. (1995). Mercuryinduced lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidney, brain and gills of a fresh water fish, Channa punctatus. Japaniese Journal Ichthyology, 43, 255-259.
  169. Rankin, M. G., & Dixon, D. G. (1994). Acute and chronic toxicity of waterborne arsenite to Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Canadian Journal Fisheries Science, 51, 372-380.
  170. Ray, J., Brown, M. W., & Solbe J. F. (1987). Metallothionein gene expression and cadmium toxicity in freshwater fish. Metallothionein 2: Proc. 2nd Int. Meet. Metallothionein and Low Mol. Weight Metal-bind. Proteins, Zürich, Aug. 24. Basel; Boston, 627-630.
  171. Redding, M. (2002). DNA synthesis after exposure to heavy metals in the testis of the Spiny dogfish. Aquatic Toxicology: Mechanisms and Consequences: Symp. Proceed. Vancouver, B. C., 27-30.
  172. Ward, D. M., Nilsow, K. H., Chen, C. Y., & Folt, C. L. (2010). Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams. Environmental Science Technology, 44(9), 3245-3251.
  173. Reid, S. D. (2002). Physiological impact of acute molybdenum exposure in juvenile Kokanee salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). Comparative Biochemistry Physiology, 133(3), 355-367.
  174. Hansen, J. A., Lipton J., Welsh, P.G., Morris, J., Cacela, D., & Suedkamp, M. J. (2002). Relationship between exposure duration, tissue residues, growth, and mortality in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles sub-chronically exposed to copper. Aquatic Toxicology, 58, 175-188.
  175. Reza, R., & Singh, G. (2010). Heavy metal contamination and its indexing approach for river water. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 7(4), 785-792.
  176. Ristenbil, Y. W., & Gerringa, L. G. A. (2002). Interaction of algal ligands, metal complexation and availability and cell responses of the diatom Ditilum brightwellii with a gradual of copper. Aquatic Toxicology, 56, 115-131.
  177. Roualt, T. A., & Tong, W. H. (2005). Iron-sulphur cluster biogenesis and mitochondrial iron homeostasis. Natural Review Molecular Cell Biology, 6(4), 345-351.
  178. Samkaram, U. К., & Philip, S. (1990). Heavy metal uptake and accumulation by Thypha angustifolia from weltlands around thermal poweer station. International Journal Ecology and Environmental Science, 2(3), 133-144.
  179. Coulibaly, S., Atse, B. C., Koffi, K. M., Sylla, S., Konan, K. J., & Kouassi, N. J. (2012). Seasonal accumulation of some heavy metals in water, sediment and tissue of black chinned tilapia Sarotherodon metanotheron from Biétri Bay in Ebrié Lagoon, Ivory Coas. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 88,
  180. Ravera, O., Beone, G. M., Trincherini, P. R., & Riccardi, N. (2007). Seasonal variations in metal content of two Unio pictorum mancus (Mollusca, Unionidae) populations from two lakes of different trophic state. Journal Limnology, 66, 28-39.
  181. Ribeiro, A. R. A., Ribeiro, L., Saele, O., Hamre, K., Dinis, M. T., & Mjren, M. (2012). Selenium supplementation changes glutathione peroxidase activity and thyroid hormone production in Senegalese sole (Soleasene galensis) larvae. Aquaculture Nutrition, 18(5), 559-567.
  182. Huang, S. S.-Y., Strathe, A. B., Wang, W.-F., Deng, D.-F., J. G., Fadel, J. G., & Hung, S. S. O. (2012). Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: Evaluating blood, tissue and urine selenium concentrations in juvenile sturgeon after a single oral dose. Aquatic Toxicology, 109, 158-165.
  183. Senn, D. B., & Hemond, H. F. (2004). Particulate arsenic and iron during anoxia in a eutrophic, urban lake. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 23, 1610-1616.
  184. Shehata, S., & Bard, S. (1980). Growth response of Scenedesmus to different concentrations of copper, cadmium, nuckei, zinc and lead. Environmental International, 4(6), 431-434.
  185. Simkiss, K., & Taylor, M. G. (1989). Metal fluxes across the membranes of aquatic organisms. Critical Review Aquatic Science, 1, 173-179.
  186. Shiau, S. Y., & Lin, S. F. (1990). Effect of supplemental dietary chromium and vanadium on the utilization of different carbohydrates in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, O. aureus. Aquaculture, 110, 321-330.
  187. Skidmore, J. F. (1970). Respiration and osmoregulation in rainbow trout with gills damaged by zinc sulphate. Journal Experimental Biology, 52, 481-494.
  188. Sonesten, L. (2003). Fish mercury levels in lakes – adjusting for Hg and fish-size covariation. Environmental Pollution, 125, 255-265.
  189. Sokolova, I. M., & Lannig, G. (2008). Interactive effects of metal pollution and temperature on metabolism in aquatic ectotherms: implications of global climate change. Climatuc Reserch, 37, 181-201.
  190. Sorensen, E. M. (1992). Metal poisoning in fish. U. S. A. Texas: CRC Press.
  191. Speyer, M. R., & Leduc, G. (1975). Effects of arsenic trioxide on growth on Rainbow trout. Abstracts of Int. Conf. Heavy Metals in the Environment. Toronto, Canada, 17-19.
  192. Spry, D. J., & Wiener, J. G. (1991). Metal bioavailability and toxicity to fish in low-alkalinity lakes: a critical review. Environmental Pollution, 71, 243-304.
  193. Vavilin, D. V., Polynov, V. A., Matorin, D. N., & Venediktov, P. S. (1995). Sublethal concentration of copper stimulate photosystem II photoinhibition in Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Plant Physiology, 146, 609-614.
  194. Rider, S. A., Davies, S. J., Jha, A. N., Fisher, A. A., Knight, J., & Sweetman J. W. (2009). Supra-nutritional dietary intake of selenite and selenium yeast in normal and stressed Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): implications on selenium status and health responses. Aquaculture, 295(34), 282-291.
  195. Buckler, D. R., Cleveland, L., Little, E. E., & Brumbaugh, W. G. (1995). Survival, sublethal responses and tissue residues of Atlantic salmon exposed to acidic pH and aluminum. Aquatic Toxicology, 31, 203-216.
  196. Suns, K., & Hitchin, G. (1990). Interrelationships between mercury levels in yearling yellow perch, fish condition and water guality. Water Air Soil Pollution, 650, 255-265.
  197. Sutherland, D. E., & Stillman, M. J. (2011). The «magic numbers» of metallothionein. Metallomics, 3(5), 444-463.
  198. Tamaki, S., & Frankenberger, Jr. W. T. (1992). Environmental chemistry of arsenic. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 124, 79-110.
  199. De Schamphelaere, K. A. C., Stubblefield, W., Rodriguez K. & Janssen C. R. (2010). The chronic toxicity of molybdate to freshwater organisms // Science Total Environmental, 408(22), 5362-5371.
  200. Kiemer, M., Black, K. D., Lussot, D., Bullock, A. M., & Ezzi I. (1995). The effects of chronic and acute exposure to hydrogen sulphide on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquaculture, 135(4), 311-327.
  201. Doe, K. G., Parker, W. R., Ponsford, S. J., & Vaughan, J. D. A. (1987). The acute and chronic toxicity of antimony to Daphnia magna and Rainbow Trout. Proceedings of the 13-th Annual Aquatic Toxicol­ogy Workshop. Moncton; New Brunswich, Canada, 40-43.
  202. Thomas, D. J., Styblo, M., & Lin, S. (2001). The cellular metabolism and systemic toxicity of arsenic. Toxicology Applied Pharmacology, 176, 127-144.
  203. Thompson, J., Davis, J. C., & Drew, R. E. (1976). Toxicity, uptake and survey studies of boron in the marine environment. Water Reserch, 10, 869-875.
  204. Marr, J. C. A., Hansen J. A., Meyer J. S., Cacela, D., Podrabsky, T., & Lipton, J. (1998). Toxicity of cobalt and copper to Rainbow trout: appli­cation of a mechanistic model for predicting survival. Aquatic Toxicology, 43, 225-238.
  205. Holland, G. A., Lasater, J. E., Neumann, E. D., & Eldridge, W. E. (1960). Toxic effects of organic and inorganic pollutants on young salmon and trout. Fishery Research Bullettin, 5.
  206. Travieso, L., Conizares, R. O., & Borya R. (1999). Heavy metal removal by Microalgae. Environmental Contamination Toxicology, 62, 144-151.
  207. Valee, B. L., & Ulmer, D. D. (1972). Biochemical effects of mercury, cadmium and lead. Annual Review Biochemistry, 41, 91-128.
  208. Vankhede, G. N. (2003). Effect of CuSO4 and ZnSO4 on branchial Na+-K+ ‒ ATPase activity the fish, Channa punctatus. Journal Ecobiology, 15(4), 287-293.
  209. Varanasi, U., & Gmur, D. J. (1978). Influence of water-borne and dietary calcium on uptake and retention of lead by Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Toxicology Applied Pharmacology, 46(1), 65-75.
  210. Velma, V., & Tchounwou, P. B. (2013). Oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by chromium in liver and kidney of goldfish Carassius auratus. Biomarker Insights, 8, 43-51.
  211. Vesk, P. A., Nockolds, C. E., & Allaway, W. G. (1999). Metal localization in water hyacinth roots from an urban wetland. Plant Cell Environmental. 22(2), 149-158.
  212. Vetra, M. (1990). Changes in fish mercury concentrations in an intensively fished lake. Cananadian Journal Fishery Science, 47, 1888-1897.
  213. Vincent, J. B. (2000). The biochemistry of chromium. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 715-718.
  214. Vinodhini, R., & Narayanan, M. (2009). The impact of toxic heavy metals on the hematological parameters in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Iranian Journal Environmental Health Science, 6(1), 23-28.
  215. Volesky, Z. R., & Holan, A. (1995). Biosorption of heavy metals. Biotechnology Progress, 11, 235-250.
  216. Vuori, K. M. (1995). Direct and indirect effects of iron on river ecosystems. Annual Zoology Fennici, 32, 317-329.
  217. Wang, D. (1994). The Environmental Biogeochemistry of Selenium in Natural Water Ecosystem. Helsinki: National Public Health Institute.
  218. Wang, W. (1987). Chromate ions, as a reference toxicant for aquatic phytotoxicity test. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 6(12), 953-960.
  219. Rai, U. N., Sinha, S., Tripathi, R. D., & Chandra, P. (1995). Wastewater treatability potential of some aquatic macrophytes: removal of heavy metal. Ecological engineering, 5, 5-12.
  220. Watanabe, T., Kiron, V., & Satoh H. (1997). Trace minerals in fish nutrition. Aquaculture, 151(14), 185-207.
  221. Waser, W., Bausheva, O., & Nikinmaa, M. (2009). The copper-induced reduction of critical swimming speed in Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is not caused by changes in gill structure. Aquatic Toxicology, 94, 77-79.
  222. Wester, P. W. (1991). Histopathological effects of environmental pollutants b-HCH and methylmercury on reproductive organs in freshwater fish. Comparison Biochemictry and Physiology, 100(12), 237.
  223. Winfrey, M. R., & Rudd, J. W. M. (1990). Environmental factors affecting the formation of methylmercury in low pH lakes: a review. Environmental Toxicology Chemistry, 9, 853-869.
  224. Wright, D. A. (1995). Trace metal and major ion interactions in aquatic animals. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 31(13), 8-18.