Ribogospod. nauka Ukr., 2016; 3(37): 47-60
, Institute of Fisheries NAAS, Kyiv
Purpose. To analyze scientific and statistical sources on commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany. To summarize German experience and identify specific features of this sector.
Findings. Commercial fishery in Germany is carried out on 30% (≈250 000 hectares) of inland water bodies of Germany. The main fishing regions are prealpine lakes in Bavaria, Lake Constance, lakes in Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania federal states as well as lakes and rivers of Brandenburg and Berlin. Commercial fishing on rivers usually has a local importance and is practiced in regions with poorly developed industry. There were 670 commercial fishing organizations in 2014, where 932 people were employed. Each fishing license owner is allowed deploying simultaneously a clearly defined number of fishing gears depending on season. In addition, fishing nets are regulated not only based on their mesh size and length, but also height and the minimum thread diameter. The cardinal difference of German inland fishing is the absence of the periods of total ban on commercial fishing. There are only ban periods for fishing on certain fish species during their spawning seasons. These periods differ for federal states and are listed in the relevant regional fishing rules. The total fish catch in inland waters of Germany by commercial fishermen in 2014 was 3132 tons, much lower than the catches of anglers who caught 18 450 tons at the same year. Most of fish were caught by fishing organizations in the Brandenburg Federal State. Average fish productivity in 2014 was approx. 13 kg/ha (ranging from 10 to 20 kg/ha). Whitefish was the dominant species in catches in the Lake Constance and prealpine lakes of Bavaria, while cyprinids (roach, bream, silver bream, blue bream, etc.) dominated in Northern Germany. The profit of commercial fish catch in 2014 was about 12.5 million euros. Among numerous activities aimed at preserving commercial fish populations, Germans practice not only the traditional methods of artificial stocking of some valuable fish species, but also shooting of cormorants.
Originality. The review describes and summarizes organizational aspects, regulation, catch amounts and species compositions of commercial fishery in inland water bodies of Germany and some aspects are compared to those practiced in Ukraine.
Practical value. The obtained objective information on the organization of inland fishery in Germany shows the importance of commercial fishery in inland waters as a real sector of economy, which allows creating new working places in rural and touristic regions, contributing to food security and providing the population with high-quality fresh fish products. German experience adapted to Ukrainian conditions may substantially contribute to the real economy sector of Ukraine that is necessary in modern conditions. This can ensure a steady improvement in economic performance and long-term fishery exploitation of inland water bodies. On the contrary, prohibition of commercial fishing in inland waters can result in an increase in the size of shadow economy, reduction in budget revenues and loss of working places that will have quite a negative impact on the welfare of Ukraine. Therefore, a decision on the ban of commercial fishing should be taken based on scientific justification and best international practices and not by intuitive impulses.
Keywords: commercial fishing, commercial fishing organizations, Germany, commercial species composition, Lake Constance, inland water bodies.
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